Differential coding of perception in the world's languages

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Is there a universal hierarchy of the senses, such that some senses (e.g., vision) are more accessible to consciousness and linguistic description than others (e.g., smell)? The long-standing presumption in Western thought has been that vision and audition are more objective than the other senses, serving as the basis of knowledge and understanding, whereas touch, taste, and smell are crude and of little value. This predicts that humans ought to be better at communicating about sight and hearing than the other senses, and decades of work based on English and related languages certainly suggests this is true. However, how well does this reflect the diversity of languages and communities worldwide? To test whether there is a universal hierarchy of the senses, stimuli from the five basic senses were used to elicit descriptions in 20 diverse languages, including 3 unrelated sign languages. We found that languages differ fundamentally in which sensory domains they linguistically code systematically, and how they do so. The tendency for better coding in some domains can be explained in part by cultural preoccupations. Although languages seem free to elaborate specific sensory domains, some general tendencies emerge: for example, with some exceptions, smell is poorly coded. The surprise is that, despite the gradual phylogenetic accumulation of the senses, and the imbalances in the neural tissue dedicated to them, no single hierarchy of the senses imposes itself upon language.


  • Asifa Majid
  • Seán G. Roberts
  • Ludy Cilissen
  • Karen Emmorey
  • Brenda Nicodemus
  • Lucinda O'Grady
  • Bencie Woll
  • Barbara LeLan
  • Hilário De Sousa
  • Brian L. Cansler
  • Shakila Shayan
  • Connie De Vos
  • Gunter Senft
  • N. J. Enfield
  • Rogayah A. Razak
  • Sebastian Fedden
  • Sylvia Tufvesson
  • Mark Dingemanse
  • Ozge Ozturk
  • Penelope Brown
  • And 6 others
  • Clair Hill
  • Olivier Le Guen
  • Vincent Hirtzel
  • Rik Van Gijn
  • Mark A. Sicoli
  • Stephen C. Levinson
External organisations
  • Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
  • Radboud University Nijmegen
  • University of Bristol
  • San Diego State University
  • Gallaudet University
  • University College London
  • University of North Carolina
  • Utrecht University
  • University of Sydney
  • Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle
  • University of Cambridge
  • Centro de Investigación y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social (CIESAS)
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Virginia
  • Pierre and Marie Curie University
  • Paris Nanterre University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • General Language Studies and Linguistics


  • Cross-cultural, Cross-linguistic, Ineffability, Language, Perception
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11369-11376
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov 5
Publication categoryResearch