Early ageing in middle-aged men is associated with adverse social factors and increased mortality risk: The Malmö Preventive Project.

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@article{a06e0812e5214fbfaf2f033ba8228a32,
title = "Early ageing in middle-aged men is associated with adverse social factors and increased mortality risk: The Malm{\"o} Preventive Project.",
abstract = "Aims: This study examined whether middle-aged men exhibiting markers of early ageing showed a different pattern of social factors, lifestyle, and biological variables compared with controls, and whether early ageing was associated with an increased mortality risk. Subjects and methods: We used a subgroup of 5,722 middle-aged men (mean age 47 years), investigated twice, from the Malm{\"o} Preventive Project (MPP), a screening programme attended by a total of 22,444 men between 1974 and 1992. Markers of biological ageing, such as decreased lung function, increased pulse pressure, and decreased height, were used to identify early aged subjects and a control group. These were followed up by use of local and national registers for a mean of 22 years. Cox's proportional regression was used to estimate multivariate relative risks (RR) for mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Men with early ageing were more often smokers, living alone, or less likely to be non-manual workers than control subjects. These men also had an increased age-adjusted mortality relative risk, RR 1.29 (95% CI 1.10-1.52). After adjustment for social and lifestyle factor there was still a significant difference in mortality between the two groups, RR 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42). Conclusion: Early biological ageing in middle-aged men is associated with an increased mortality risk during long-term follow-up that cannot be fully explained by social background characteristics or adverse lifestyle.",
keywords = "lung function, height, Ageing, men, pulse pressure, social class, smoking",
author = "David Tell and Peter Nilsson",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1080/14034940500489834",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "346--352",
journal = "Scandinavian Journal of Public Health",
issn = "1651-1905",
publisher = "SAGE Publications",
number = "4",

}