Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


PURPOSE: We have recently identified homeostatic alterations in the circulating T cells of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In cultures of retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have demonstrated that T-cell-derived cytokines induced the upregulation of complement, chemokines and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging techniques. Plasma was isolated from freshly drawn peripheral venous blood samples and analysed for interleukin (IL)15, IL18, interferon (IFN)γ, soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor II (sTNFRII) and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype.

RESULTS: We included 136 individuals with early or late forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p < 0.01). After adjusting for CFH Y402H genotype, age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFNγ were low and not associated with AMD.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients with AMD. However, it remains to be determined whether increased levels of TNFα can be found, which directly reflects an increased activity of macrophages and T cells.


  • Carsten Faber
  • Tina Jehs
  • Helene Baek Juel
  • Amardeep Singh
  • Mads Krüger Falk
  • Torben Lykke Sørensen
  • Mogens Holst Nissen
External organisations
  • Copenhagen University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Ophthalmology


  • Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Biomarkers/blood, Case-Control Studies, Complement Factor H/genetics, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Exudates and Transudates, Female, Genotype, Genotyping Techniques, Humans, Interleukin-15/blood, Interleukin-18/blood, Male, Middle Aged, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II/blood, Wet Macular Degeneration/blood
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)242-7
Number of pages6
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 May
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes