Ecstasy-induced cell death in cortical neuronal cultures is serotonin 2A-receptor-dependent and potentiated under hyperthermia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy")-induced neurotoxicity mainly focus on damage of serotonergic terminals. Less attention has been given to neuronal cell death produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and other amphetamines in areas including the cortex, striatum and thalamus. In the present study we investigated 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal serum free cultures from rat cortex. Since 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine intake induces hyperthermia in both animals and humans, the experiments were performed under normal (36.5 degrees C) and hyperthermic conditions (40 degrees C). Our findings showed a dose-, time- and temperature-dependent apoptotic cell death induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in cortical neurons. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced damage was potentiated under hyperthermia. The neurotoxicity was reduced by the serotonin 2A-receptor antagonists, ketanserin and (2R,4R)-5-[2-[2-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]phenoxy]ethyl]-1-methyl-3-pyrrol idinol hydrochloride, in both normothermic and hyperthermic conditions. (+/-)-2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride, a model agonist for the serotonin 2A-receptor, also induced a dose- and time-dependent apoptotic cell death. Again, protection was provided by ketanserin and (2R,4R)-5-[2-[2-[2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]phenoxy]ethyl]-1-methyl-3-pyrrol idinol hydrochloride against (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride-induced neurotoxicity, thereby indicating that the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine stimulation of the serotonin 2A-receptor leads to neurotoxicity. This study provides for the first time evidence that direct 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine serotonin 2A-receptor stimulation leads to neuronal cortical death. alpha-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone a free radical scavenger and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine as well as the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 provided protection under normothermia and hyperthermia, thereby suggesting the participation of free radicals in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced cell death. Since 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine serotonin 2A-receptor agonistic properties lead to neuronal death, clinically available atypical antipsychotic drugs with serotonin 2A-antagonistic properties could be a valuable therapeutic tool against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration.

Details

Authors
  • J P Capela
  • Karsten Ruscher
  • M Lautenschlager
  • D Freyer
  • U Dirnagl
  • A R Gaio
  • M L Bastos
  • A Meisel
  • F Carvalho
Organisations
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurosciences

Keywords

  • MDMA, primary cortical neuronal serum free culture, hyperthermia, apoptosis, neurotoxicity, 5-HT2A-receptor
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1069-1081
JournalNeuroscience
Volume139
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes