Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

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Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors. / Shah, Firoz; Cuevas, César Nicolás; Bentzer, Johan; Ellström, Magnus; Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Carleer, Robert; Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Ahrén, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Hibbett, David S; Martin, Francis; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders.

In: New Phytologist, Vol. 209, No. Online 03 November 2015, 2016, p. 1705-1706.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Shah, F, Cuevas, CN, Bentzer, J, Ellström, M, Smits, M, Rineau, F, Canbäck, B, Floudas, D, Carleer, R, Lackner, G, Braesel, J, Hoffmeister, D, Henrissat, B, Ahrén, D, Johansson, T, Hibbett, DS, Martin, F, Persson, P & Tunlid, A 2016, 'Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.', New Phytologist, vol. 209, no. Online 03 November 2015, pp. 1705-1706. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13722

APA

CBE

Shah F, Cuevas CN, Bentzer J, Ellström M, Smits M, Rineau F, Canbäck B, Floudas D, Carleer R, Lackner G, Braesel J, Hoffmeister D, Henrissat B, Ahrén D, Johansson T, Hibbett DS, Martin F, Persson P, Tunlid A. 2016. Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors. New Phytologist. 209(Online 03 November 2015):1705-1706. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13722

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Shah, Firoz ; Cuevas, César Nicolás ; Bentzer, Johan ; Ellström, Magnus ; Smits, Mark ; Rineau, Francois ; Canbäck, Björn ; Floudas, Dimitrios ; Carleer, Robert ; Lackner, Gerald ; Braesel, Jana ; Hoffmeister, Dirk ; Henrissat, Bernard ; Ahrén, Dag ; Johansson, Tomas ; Hibbett, David S ; Martin, Francis ; Persson, Per ; Tunlid, Anders. / Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors. In: New Phytologist. 2016 ; Vol. 209, No. Online 03 November 2015. pp. 1705-1706.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

AU - Shah, Firoz

AU - Cuevas, César Nicolás

AU - Bentzer, Johan

AU - Ellström, Magnus

AU - Smits, Mark

AU - Rineau, Francois

AU - Canbäck, Björn

AU - Floudas, Dimitrios

AU - Carleer, Robert

AU - Lackner, Gerald

AU - Braesel, Jana

AU - Hoffmeister, Dirk

AU - Henrissat, Bernard

AU - Ahrén, Dag

AU - Johansson, Tomas

AU - Hibbett, David S

AU - Martin, Francis

AU - Persson, Per

AU - Tunlid, Anders

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead.

AB - Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead.

U2 - 10.1111/nph.13722

DO - 10.1111/nph.13722

M3 - Article

VL - 209

SP - 1705

EP - 1706

JO - New Phytologist

JF - New Phytologist

SN - 1469-8137

IS - Online 03 November 2015

ER -