Effects of quantum noise and binocular summation on dose requirements in stereoradiography

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In the case of a quantum-noise limited detector, signal detection theory suggests that stereoradiographic images can be acquired with one half of the per-image dose needed for a standard radiographic projection, as information from the two stereo images can be combined. Previously, film-screen stereoradiography has been performed using the same per-image dose as in projection radiography, i.e., doubling the total dose. In this paper, the assumption of a possible decrease in dose for stereoradiography was tested by a series of contrast-detail experiments, using phantom images acquired over a range of exposures. The number of visible details, the effective reduction of the dose, and the effective decrease in the threshold signal-to-noise ratio were determined using human observers under several display and viewing conditions. These results were averaged over five observers and compared with multiple readings by a single observer and with the results of an additional observer with limited stereoscopic acuity. Experimental results show that the total dose needed to produce a stereoradiographic image pair is approximately 1.1 times the dose needed for a single projection in standard radiography, indicating that under these conditions the human visual system demonstrates almost ideal binocular summation.


External organisations
  • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Medical Image Processing


  • Digital radiography, Dose, Human perception, Observer study, Stereoradiographic technique
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3061-3071
Number of pages11
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Dec
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes