Epitaxial graphene on 6H-SiC and Li intercalation

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The influence of lithium (Li) exposures on monolayer graphene grown on the silicon-terminated SiC(0001) surface is investigated using low-energy electron microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, and micro-low-energy electron diffraction. After Li deposition, islands or Li droplets are observed on the surface, and are found to coalesce together with time. Formation of a dipole layer at the interface, interpreted to originate from Li-Si bonding, is observed directly after Li deposition, and manifested by a 2 eV shift of the C 1s and Si 2p bulk SiC peaks. This indicates that Li atoms penetrate through the graphene and carbon buffer layer directly after deposition at room temperature since three pi bands are then moreover observed at the K point, instead of the single pi band for monolayer graphene. The existence of three pi bands is interpreted as a mixture of bilayer and monolayer graphene plus a difference in doping levels due to an uneven distribution of Li atoms. Li gives rise to electron doping of the graphene and results in a lowering of the Dirac point. After annealing to a few hundred degrees Celsius, a more even Li distribution and intercalation is obtained since then two distinct pi bands appear at the K point.


  • C. Virojanadara
  • S. Watcharinyanon
  • Alexei Zakharov
  • L. I. Johansson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Natural Sciences
  • Physical Sciences
Original languageEnglish
Article number205402
JournalPhysical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics)
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Publication categoryResearch