Escape from UV threats in zooplankton: A cocktail of behavior and protective pigmentation

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Escape from UV threats in zooplankton: A cocktail of behavior and protective pigmentation. / Hansson, Lars-Anders; Hylander, Samuel; Sommaruga, Ruben.

In: Ecology, Vol. 88, No. 8, 2007, p. 1932-1939.

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Hansson, Lars-Anders ; Hylander, Samuel ; Sommaruga, Ruben. / Escape from UV threats in zooplankton: A cocktail of behavior and protective pigmentation. In: Ecology. 2007 ; Vol. 88, No. 8. pp. 1932-1939.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Escape from UV threats in zooplankton: A cocktail of behavior and protective pigmentation

AU - Hansson, Lars-Anders

AU - Hylander, Samuel

AU - Sommaruga, Ruben

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - In order to avoid environmental threats, organisms may respond by altering behavior or phenotype. Using experiments performed in high-latitude Siberia and in temperate Sweden, we show for the first time that, among freshwater crustacean zooplankton, the defense against threats from ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a system where phenotypic plasticity and behavioral escape mechanisms function as complementary traits. Freshwater copepods relied mainly on accumulating protective pigments when exposed to UV radiation, but Daphnia showed strong behavioral responses. Pigment levels for both Daphnia and copepods were generally higher at higher latitudes, mirroring different UV threat levels. When released from the UV threat, Daphnia rapidly reduced (within 10 days) their UV protecting pigmentation-by as much as 40%-suggesting a cost in maintaining UV protective pigmentation. The. evolutionary advantage of protective pigments is, likely, the ability to utilize the whole water column during daytime; conversely, since the amount of algal food is generally higher in surface waters, unpigmented individuals are restricted to a less preferred feeding habitat in deeper waters. Our main conclusion is that different zooplankton taxa, and similar taxa at different latitudes, use different mixes of behavior and pigments to respond to UV radiation.

AB - In order to avoid environmental threats, organisms may respond by altering behavior or phenotype. Using experiments performed in high-latitude Siberia and in temperate Sweden, we show for the first time that, among freshwater crustacean zooplankton, the defense against threats from ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a system where phenotypic plasticity and behavioral escape mechanisms function as complementary traits. Freshwater copepods relied mainly on accumulating protective pigments when exposed to UV radiation, but Daphnia showed strong behavioral responses. Pigment levels for both Daphnia and copepods were generally higher at higher latitudes, mirroring different UV threat levels. When released from the UV threat, Daphnia rapidly reduced (within 10 days) their UV protecting pigmentation-by as much as 40%-suggesting a cost in maintaining UV protective pigmentation. The. evolutionary advantage of protective pigments is, likely, the ability to utilize the whole water column during daytime; conversely, since the amount of algal food is generally higher in surface waters, unpigmented individuals are restricted to a less preferred feeding habitat in deeper waters. Our main conclusion is that different zooplankton taxa, and similar taxa at different latitudes, use different mixes of behavior and pigments to respond to UV radiation.

KW - ultraviolet

KW - trait compensation

KW - pigment

KW - phenotypic plasticity

KW - acid

KW - mycosporine-like amino

KW - limnology

KW - lakes

KW - Daphnia

KW - carotenoid

KW - copepod

KW - radiation

KW - UV radiation

KW - zooplankton

U2 - 10.1890/06-2038.1

DO - 10.1890/06-2038.1

M3 - Article

VL - 88

SP - 1932

EP - 1939

JO - Ecology

JF - Ecology

SN - 0012-9658

IS - 8

ER -