Evaluating Sex and Age Differences in ADI-R and ADOS Scores in a Large European Multi-site Sample of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Research on sex-related differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been impeded by small samples. We pooled 28 datasets from 18 sites across nine European countries to examine sex differences in the ASD phenotype on the ADI-R (376 females, 1763 males) and ADOS (233 females, 1187 males). On the ADI-R, early childhood restricted and repetitive behaviours were lower in females than males, alongside comparable levels of social interaction and communication difficulties in females and males. Current ADI-R and ADOS scores showed no sex differences for ASD severity. There were lower socio-communicative symptoms in older compared to younger individuals. This large European ASD sample adds to the literature on sex and age variations of ASD symptomatology.


  • J. Tillmann
  • K. Ashwood
  • M. Absoud
  • S. Bölte
  • F. Bonnet-Brilhault
  • J. K. Buitelaar
  • S. Calderoni
  • R. Calvo
  • R. Canal-Bedia
  • R. Canitano
  • A. de Bildt
  • M. Gomot
  • P. J. Hoekstra
  • A. Kaale
  • H. McConachie
  • D. G. Murphy
  • A. Narzisi
  • I. Oosterling
  • M. Pejovic-Milovancevic
  • A. M. Persico
  • O. Puig
  • H. Roeyers
  • N. Rommelse
  • R. Sacco
  • V. Scandurra
  • A. C. Stanfield
  • T. Charman
External organisations
  • King's College London
  • Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Stockholm County Council
  • François Rabelais University
  • Hospital Clínic of Barcelona
  • University of Salamanca
  • University Medical Center Groningen
  • Oslo university hospital
  • University of Oslo
  • University of Newcastle upon Tyne
  • Radboud University Nijmegen
  • University of Belgrade
  • University of Messina
  • Ghent University
  • University Campus Bio-Medico
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Region Skåne
  • University of Pisa
  • Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena
  • University of Groningen
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychiatry


  • Age, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Phenotype, Sex, Symptom severity
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2490-2505
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number7
Early online date2018 Feb 21
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul
Publication categoryResearch