Evaluation and characterization of ammoniumpolyphosphate-pentaerythritol-based systems for intumescent coatings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Intumescent coatings are increasingly used as a method of passive fire protection on steel constructions. By forming a carbon network and releasing a blowing agent, the thin intumescent film swells 100-fold at elevated temperatures. The highly insulating foam effectively prevents the load bearing steel from reaching its critical temperature at which it looses its mechanical properties and collapses. The role of the carbon donor in intumescent coatings has been studied. Comparison in temperature development, foaming ratios, and rheological behavior has been performed between formulations containing pentaerythritol (penta), di-penta, and tri-penta. A simulated fire test, in which the temperature development during intumescence was studied, showed that the formulations containing penta were considerably more efficient in keeping a low temperature throughout the process. A more rapid temperature development was displayed when using di-penta and tripenta as the carbon donor. Rheometer tests indicate that penta formulations enter the inturnescent process at a lower temperature and stays in it for a longer time than di-penta and tri-penta formulations. Furthermore, the crossover temperature and maximum phase angle are shifted towards higher temperatures by replacing penta with di-penta and with tri-penta in the formulations, respectively.


  • Anna Andersson
  • Stefan Lundmark
  • Frans Maurer
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Chemical Sciences


  • foam extrusion, intumescence, flame retardancy, rheology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)748-753
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Polymer and Materials Chemistry (LTH) (011001041)