Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of various nanofluids in an indoor electric heater

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@article{f5df807156a94e219244c67ccc145bc9,
title = "Experimental investigation on heat transfer characteristics of various nanofluids in an indoor electric heater",
abstract = "Heat transfer characteristics of an electric heater were experimentally investigated by using various fluids in this paper, including Cu-EGW (a mixture of ethylene glycol and DI-water), Al2O3-EGW, Fe3O4-EGW nanofluids. A 4:6 mixture of ethylene glycol and deionized water was used as the base liquid. All these nanofluids were prepared by ultrasonic treatment, and nanoparticle mass concentration of samples varies from 0.5{\%} to 2{\%}. In addition, natural convective heat transfer of Fe3O4-EGW nanofluid in an electric heater was carried out by considering an effect of different magnetic fields. The results indicated that heat transfer performance of Cu-EGW nanofluid was significantly higher than the Al2O3-EGW and Fe3O4-EGW nanofluids, and the heating efficiency of the Cu-EGW nanofluid increased with the mass concentration of Cu particles. Compared with that of the base fluid, equilibrium temperature values of electric heaters filled with 2.0{\%} Cu-EGW, 1.0{\%} Al2O3-EGW and 1.0{\%} Fe3O4-EGW nanofluids increase by 13.18{\%}, 3.77{\%} and 4.52{\%}, respectively. It was also found that the magnetic field had a positive effect on the heat transfer enhancement of the Fe3O4-EGW nanofluid. In addition, for the 0.5{\%} Fe3O4 nanofluid under a magnetic intensity of 100 mT, the equilibrium temperature on the middle fin increases by 14.68{\%}.",
keywords = "Electric heater, Equilibrium temperature, Magnetic field, Nanofluid, Natural convection",
author = "Zhanxiu Chen and Dan Zheng and Jin Wang and Lei Chen and Bengt Sund{\'e}n",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1016/j.renene.2019.09.036",
language = "English",
volume = "147",
pages = "1011--1018",
journal = "Renewable Energy",
issn = "0960-1481",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}