Frequency- and Phase-Sensitive Magnetomotive Ultrasound Imaging of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

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T1 - Frequency- and Phase-Sensitive Magnetomotive Ultrasound Imaging of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

AU - Evertsson, Maria

AU - Cinthio, Magnus

AU - Fredriksson, Sarah

AU - Olsson, Fredrik

AU - Persson, Hans W

AU - Jansson, Tomas

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - It has recently been demonstrated that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be used as magnetomotive ultrasound contrast agents. A time-varying external magnetic field acts to move the particles and, thus, the nanoparticle-laden tissue. However, the difficulty of distinguishing this magnetomotive motion from undesired movement induced in regions without nanoparticles or other motion artifacts has not been well reported. Using a high-frequency linear-array system, we found that displacements outside nanoparticle-laden regions can be similar in magnitude to those in regions containing nanoparticles. We also found that the displacement outside the nanoparticle regions had a phase shift of approximately p radians relative to that in the nanoparticle regions. To suppress signals arising from undesirable movements, we developed an algorithm based on quadrature detection and phase gating at the precise frequency of nanoparticle displacement. Thus, clutter at other frequencies can be filtered out, and the processed signal can be color-coded and superimposed on the B-mode image. The median signal-to-clutter ratio improvement using the proposed algorithm was 36 dB compared with simply summing the movement energy at all frequencies. This clutter rejection is a crucial step to move magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of nanoparticles toward in vivo investigations.

AB - It has recently been demonstrated that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be used as magnetomotive ultrasound contrast agents. A time-varying external magnetic field acts to move the particles and, thus, the nanoparticle-laden tissue. However, the difficulty of distinguishing this magnetomotive motion from undesired movement induced in regions without nanoparticles or other motion artifacts has not been well reported. Using a high-frequency linear-array system, we found that displacements outside nanoparticle-laden regions can be similar in magnitude to those in regions containing nanoparticles. We also found that the displacement outside the nanoparticle regions had a phase shift of approximately p radians relative to that in the nanoparticle regions. To suppress signals arising from undesirable movements, we developed an algorithm based on quadrature detection and phase gating at the precise frequency of nanoparticle displacement. Thus, clutter at other frequencies can be filtered out, and the processed signal can be color-coded and superimposed on the B-mode image. The median signal-to-clutter ratio improvement using the proposed algorithm was 36 dB compared with simply summing the movement energy at all frequencies. This clutter rejection is a crucial step to move magnetomotive ultrasound imaging of nanoparticles toward in vivo investigations.

U2 - 10.1109/TUFFC.2013.2591

DO - 10.1109/TUFFC.2013.2591

M3 - Article

VL - 60

SP - 481

EP - 491

JO - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

T2 - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

JF - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

SN - 0885-3010

IS - 3

ER -