From Snapshot to Movie: φ Analysis of Protein Folding Transition States Taken One Step Further

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Kinetic anomalies in protein folding can result from changes of the kinetic ground states (D, I, and N), changes of the protein folding transition state, or both. The 102-residue protein U1A has a symmetrically curved chevron plot which seems to result mainly from changes of the transition state. At low concentrations of denaturant the transition state occurs early in the folding reaction, whereas at high denaturant concentration it moves close to the native structure. In this study we use this movement to follow continuously the formation and growth of U1A's folding nucleus by φ analysis. Although U1A's transition state structure is generally delocalized and displays a typical nucleation-condensation pattern, we can still resolve a sequence of folding events. However, these events are sufficiently coupled to start almost simultaneously throughout the transition state structure.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Biological Sciences


  • Biophysics
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14854-14859
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Publication categoryResearch