Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The paper describes full-scale fire-fighting tests performed in an underground mine. A total of six different methods to fight a full scale fire in a mine tunnel were tested. The methods involved different fire-fighting equipment but were comparable regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, and smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually extinguish the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates, temperatures and moving speeds are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation. Results indicate that a timespan of 15–30 min is needed for the firefighters to reach the fire source and achieve the extinguishing criteria in five of the tests. The standard equipment and nozzles shows good performance in the tests. A limiting factor on the firefighter’s endurance is the amount of air that is available. As a result from these findings the endurance of BA-teams could improve if focus is put on team organization, lightweight equipment and air supply.


  • Anders Palm
  • Maria Kumm
  • Haukur Ingason
External organisations
  • Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade
  • Mälardalen University
  • SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Civil Engineering


  • Fire-fighting, Full-scale fire experiments, Heat release rate (HRR), Moving speed, Oxygen, Tunnel
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1519-1537
Number of pages19
JournalFire Technology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sep 1
Publication categoryResearch