Functional study of raw and cooked blue maize flour: Starch digestibility, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of blue maize (BM) (Zea mays L.) flour and to investigate the effects of polyphenol-containing extracts and BM wholegrain flour on starch digestion under uncooked and cooked conditions; commercial white maize flour was used as control. Total phenolic content in BM flour (BMF) (164 ± 14 mg gallic acid/g of dry matter) was higher than white maize (127 ± 7 mg gallic acid/g of dry matter), and the presence of anthocyanins (2.0 ± 0.5 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g) was detected. Also, an important scavenging activity against ABTS (2,2’-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and ferric reducing power (FRAP) was determined. Extracts of BMF reduced amylase activity (>90% of inhibition). BMF showed higher slowly digestible and resistant starch contents, thus exhibiting lower predicted glycemic index than white maize. Total anthocyanins (r = −0.89 and r = −0.79, p<0.05), antioxidant capacity (r = −0.86 and r = −0.96, p<0.05), total starch (r = 0.99 and 0.92, p<0.05) and resistant starch content (r = −0.99 and r = −0.92, p<0.05) were correlated with pGI for uncooked and cooked flours, respectively. These results indicate the potential use of BMF and its phenolic-rich extract as functional ingredients to develop antioxidant and indigestible carbohydrate-rich foods with potential health benefits.


  • Gustavo A. Camelo-Méndez
  • Edith Agama-Acevedo
  • Juscelino Tovar
  • Luis A. Bello-Pérez
External organisations
  • National Polytechnic Institute
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Food Science


  • Antioxidant capacity, Blue maize, Polyphenols, Predicted glycemic index, Uncooked and cooked matrices
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-185
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jul 1
Publication categoryResearch