Functioning and disability from 10 to 16 years after traumatic brain injury

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: With increased long-term survival after traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is a need to understand the life situation many years after the injury. In this study, we have assessed persons on average 16 years after their injury and determined changes over 6 years in overall outcome, living condition, marital status and vocational situation, and in their functioning and disability. Materials & Methods: Individuals (n = 49, mean age 45 years, 28-70 years) who were assessed 6-15 years (average 10 years) post-TBI were reassessed 12-21 years after their injury (average 16 years) using internationally established TBI outcome measures. Results: From the first to the second assessment, overall outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was stable for a large majority and no significant changes in marital status or vocational situation was found. There was some significant, but very small, decline regarding cognitive function, home integration and social integration. In the multiple regression analysis, there was a small significant decline in the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) Adjustment subscale score for women with a moderate-to-severe injury. Conclusions: The very small changes over 6 years imply that persons with a TBI can reach and maintain a stable level of functioning many years post-TBI. Women with a moderate-to-severe TBI seem to be more vulnerable and may experience a small decline in some aspects of their functioning related to anxiety, depression, irritability, pain and headache and fatigue. The relatively small sample requires further studies to confirm these findings.


External organisations
  • Sunderby Hospital
  • Luleå University of Technology
  • Uppsala University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • disability evaluation, Glasgow Outcome Scale, outcome, questionnaires, recovery of function, traumatic brain injury
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-122
JournalActa Neurologica Scandinavica
Issue number2
Early online date2019 Nov 8
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Publication categoryResearch