GAD65 vaccination: 5 years of follow-up in a randomised dose-escalating study in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.

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title = "GAD65 vaccination: 5 years of follow-up in a randomised dose-escalating study in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.",
abstract = "AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether treatment of GAD65 autoantibody (GADA)-positive diabetic patients with alum-formulated recombinant GAD65 (GAD-alum) is safe and does not compromise beta cell function. METHODS: This Phase 2, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation clinical trial, which was randomized through a central office, was performed in 47 GADA-positive type 2 diabetic patients, who received subcutaneous injections of GAD-alum (4 [n = 9], 20 [n = 8], 100 [n = 9] or 500 [n = 8] mug) or placebo (n = 13) at weeks 1 and 4 of the trial. Participants and caregivers were blinded to group assignments. The primary outcome was safety as assessed by neurological tests, medications and beta cell function evaluated over 5 years, representing the end of the trial. RESULTS: No severe study-related adverse events occurred during the 5 year follow-up. None of the dose groups was associated with an increased risk of starting insulin treatment compared with the placebo group. The use of oral hypoglycaemic agents did not differ between the dose groups. After 5 years, fasting C-peptide levels declined in the placebo group (-0.24; 95% CI -0.41 to -0.07 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.01) and the 500 microg dose group (-0.37; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.17 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.003), but not in the 4 microg (-0.10; 95% CI -0.28 to 0.07 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.20), 20 microg (0.04; 95% CI -0.12 to 0.19 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.58) and 100 microg (0.00; 95% CI -0.20 to -0.20 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.98) dose groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The primary outcome of safety was achieved, since no severe study-related adverse events occurred. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Because the study was initiated before 1 July 2005, the protocol was not registered in a registry. FUNDING: This trial was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers DK26190 and DK53004), the Swedish Research Council (grant number 72X-14064) and Diamyd Therapeutics (Stockholm, Sweden).",
author = "Carl-David Agardh and Kristian Lynch and M Palm{\'e}r and Katarina Link and {\AA}ke Lernmark",
note = "The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Diabetes and Celiac Unit (013241540), Medicine (Lund) (013230025), Unit on Vascular Diabetic Complications (013241510)",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1007/s00125-009-1371-2",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "1363--1368",
journal = "Diabetologia",
issn = "1432-0428",
publisher = "Springer",