Gauge-origin independent magnetizabilities from hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics models: Theory and applications to liquid water

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The theory of a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach for gauge-origin independent calculations of the molecular magnetizability using Hartree-Fock or Density Functional Theory is presented. The method is applied to liquid water using configurations generated from classical Molecular Dynamics simulation to calculate the statistical averaged magnetizability. Based on a comparison with experimental data, treating only one water molecule quantum mechanically appears to be insufficient, while a quantum mechanical treatment of also the first solvation shell leads to good agreement between theory and experiment. This indicates that the gas-to-liquid phase shift for the molecular magnetizability is to a large extent of non-electrostatic nature. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • Kestutis Aidas
  • Jacob Kongsted
  • Christian B. Nielsen
  • Kurt V. Mikkelsen
  • Ove Christiansen
  • Kenneth Ruud
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Theoretical Chemistry
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-328
JournalChemical Physics Letters
Issue number4-6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Theoretical Chemistry (S) (011001039)