Gender differences in inflammatory proteins and pathways in seasonal allergic rhinitis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In model organisms, thousands of genes differ in expression between females and males. It is not known if differences on a similar scale are found in humans nor how this relates to disease. However, in allergic disease gender differences in the levels of both inflammatory cells and proteins have been shown. In this study, we found lower nasal fluid allergen-specific IgE in women than men with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). This led to genome-wide analyses of gene expression in allergen-challenged CD4(+) cells from patients with SAR before and after treatment with cortisone. Before treatment, 975 genes differed in expression between women and men: 337 were higher in women. After treatment only 428 genes and one pathway differed in expression. The genes that differed in expression between women and men were over-represented in 10 pathways. Five of the pathways regulated chemotaxis. All five were less active in women. One of the pathways was induced by the eosinophilic chemokine CCL4. Analysis of nasal fluid CCL4 protein confirmed lower levels in women with seasonal allergic rhinitis, before and during the pollen season. By contrast, nasal fluid CCL3 levels did not differ between the genders. In summary, this study shows gender differences in specific inflammatory pathways and proteins in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Further studies are warranted to examine if such differences have diagnostic and therapeutic implications in allergic diseases. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Fredrik Barrenas
  • Bengt Andersson
  • Lars-Olaf Cardell
  • Michael Langston
  • Reza Mobini
  • Andy Perkins
  • Juhani Soini
  • Arne Stahl
  • Mikael Benson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cell and Molecular Biology


  • gender, CCL4, microarrays
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-329
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Publication categoryResearch