General and abdominal adiposity and the risk of Parkinson's disease: A prospective cohort study

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Introduction: Due to demographic change, an increase in the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is expected in the future and, thus, the identification of modifiable risk factors is urgently needed. We aimed to examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident PD. Methods: In 13 of the 23 centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a total of 734 incident cases of PD were identified between 1992 and 2012 with a mean follow-up of 12 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We modelled anthropometric variables as continuous and categorical exposures and performed subgroup analyses by potential effect modifiers including sex and smoking. Results: We found no association between BMI, WC and incident PD, neither among men nor among women. Among never and former smokers, BMI and waist circumference were also not associated with PD risk. For male smokers, however, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between BMI and PD risk (HR 0.51, 95%CI: 0.30, 0.84) and the opposite for women, i.e. a significant direct association of BMI (HR 1.79, 95%CI: 1.04, 3.08) and waist circumference (HR 1.64, 95%CI: 1.03, 2.61) with risk of PD. Conclusion: Our data revealed no association between excess weight and PD risk but a possible interaction between anthropometry, sex and smoking.


  • Lukas Riso
  • Rudolf Kaaks
  • Tilman Kühn
  • Disorn Sookthai
  • Lars Forsgren
  • Miles Trupp
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Carlo La Vecchia
  • Anna Karakatsani
  • Diana Gavrila
  • Pietro Ferrari
  • Heinz Freisling
  • Susanne Lewan
  • Roel CH Vermeulen
  • Salvatore Panico
  • Giovanna Masala
  • Eva Ardanaz
  • Vittorio Krogh
  • Robert G. Perneczky
  • Lefkos T. Middleton
  • Olatz Mokoroa
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
  • Sabrina Sieri
  • Shabina A. Hayat
  • Carol Brayne
  • Elio Riboli
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Valentina Gallo
  • Verena A. Katzke
External organisations
  • German Cancer Research Centre
  • Umeå University
  • Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens
  • University of Milan
  • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Murcia Regional Health Council
  • CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization
  • University Medical Center Utrecht
  • Utrecht University
  • University of Naples Federico II
  • Cancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO)
  • Health Research Institute of Navarra (IDISNA)
  • Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
  • Imperial College London
  • German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn
  • Biodonostia Health Research Institute
  • Citta' della Salute e della Scienza Hospital-University of Turin
  • University of Cambridge
  • Queen Mary University
  • Lund University
  • University Hospital Munich
  • Centre for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention (CPO Piemonte)
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurosciences
  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • BMI, Cohort, EPIC, Overweight, Parkinson, Smoking
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 98-104
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
Early online date2019 Feb 8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch