Genomic Diversity and Admixture Differs for Stone-Age Scandinavian Foragers and Farmers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Prehistoric population structure associated with the transition to an agricultural lifestyle in Europe remains a contentious idea. Population-genomic data from 11 Scandinavian Stone Age human remains suggest that hunter-gatherers had lower genetic diversity than that of farmers. Despite their close geographical proximity, the genetic differentiation between the two Stone Age groups was greater than that observed among extant European populations. Additionally, the Scandinavian Neolithic farmers exhibited a greater degree of hunter-gatherer-related admixture than that of the Tyrolean Iceman, who also originated from a farming context. In contrast, Scandinavian hunter-gatherers displayed no significant evidence of introgression from farmers. Our findings suggest that Stone Age foraging groups were historically in low numbers, likely owing to oscillating living conditions or restricted carrying capacity, and that they were partially incorporated into expanding farming groups.


  • Pontus Skoglund
  • Helena Malmstrom
  • Ayca Omrak
  • Maanasa Raghavan
  • Cristina Valdiosera
  • Torsten Gunther
  • Per Hall
  • Kristiina Tambets
  • Jueri Parik
  • Karl-Goran Sjogren
  • Jan Apel
  • Eske Willerslev
  • Jan Stora
  • Anders Gotherstrom
  • Mattias Jakobsson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Archaeology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)747-750
Issue number6185
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch