Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic beta-cells

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Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic beta-cells. / MacDonald, Patrick; Joseph, JW; Rorsman, Patrik.

In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 360, No. 1464, 2005, p. 2211-2225.

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MacDonald, Patrick ; Joseph, JW ; Rorsman, Patrik. / Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic beta-cells. In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2005 ; Vol. 360, No. 1464. pp. 2211-2225.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Glucose-sensing mechanisms in pancreatic beta-cells

AU - MacDonald, Patrick

AU - Joseph, JW

AU - Rorsman, Patrik

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - The appropriate secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells is critically important to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The beta-cells must sense and respond suitably to postprandial increases of blood glucose, and perturbation of glucose-sensing in these cells can lead to hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemias and ultimately diabetes. Here, we review beta-cell glucose-sensing with a particular focus on the regulation of cellular excitability and exocytosis. We examine in turn: (i) the generation of metabolic signalling molecules; (ii) the regulation of beta-cell membrane potential; and (iii) insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis. We further discuss the role of well known and putative candidate metabolic signals as regulators of insulin secretion.

AB - The appropriate secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells is critically important to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The beta-cells must sense and respond suitably to postprandial increases of blood glucose, and perturbation of glucose-sensing in these cells can lead to hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemias and ultimately diabetes. Here, we review beta-cell glucose-sensing with a particular focus on the regulation of cellular excitability and exocytosis. We examine in turn: (i) the generation of metabolic signalling molecules; (ii) the regulation of beta-cell membrane potential; and (iii) insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis. We further discuss the role of well known and putative candidate metabolic signals as regulators of insulin secretion.

KW - potential

KW - membrane

KW - ion channels

KW - metabolism

KW - glucose

KW - insulin secretion

KW - exocytosis

U2 - 10.1098/rstb.2005.1762

DO - 10.1098/rstb.2005.1762

M3 - Article

VL - 360

SP - 2211

EP - 2225

JO - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

SN - 1471-2970

IS - 1464

ER -