Glutamate decarboxylase antibodies in non-diabetic pregnancy precedes insulin-dependent diabetes in the mother but not necessarily in the offspring

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We studied the risk for diabetes of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab) and islet cell (ICA) autoantibodies in non-diabetic pregnant mothers and their children. Pregnancy and cord blood sera were collected in 1970-87 from about 35,000 mothers who delivered a child in the city of Malmo, Sweden. A total of 42 mothers were identified in 1988 who, 1-18 years after their pregnancies, had developed either insulin-dependent (n = 22) or non-insulin dependent (n = 20) diabetes mellitus. First, in 123 pregnant mothers selected as controls, 0.8% had GAD65Ab and 0.8% ICA. Second, among the mothers with non-insulin dependent diabetes, 7/20 (35%) had GAD65Ab eight months to 13 years, 10 months before clinical diagnosis. Third, in mothers who later developed insulin-dependent diabetes, 12/22 (55%) had GAD65Ab and 10/22 (45%) had ICA in pregnancies preceding the clinical diagnosis by 13 months to 9 years, 4 months. In 1996, none of the children born to the 42 mothers have developed diabetes. GAD65Ab and ICA in non-diabetic pregnancies may predict insulin-dependent diabetes in the mother but not necessarily in the offspring.


External organisations
  • Uppsala University
  • Western Washington University
  • Lund University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Clinical Medicine


  • Autoimmunity, Glutamic acid decarboxylase, HLA, Islet cell autoantibodies, Placental transfer, Pregnancy, autoantibody, enzyme antibody, glutamate decarboxylase, pancreas islet cell antibody, adult, article, clinical article, controlled study, female, human, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, risk, Sweden
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Nov 8
Publication categoryResearch