Gradient echo imaging of flowing hyperpolarized nuclei: theory and phantom studies on 129Xe dissolved in ethanol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The influence of flip angle and flow velocity on the signal intensity achieved when imaging a hyperpolarized substance with a spoiled gradient echo sequence was investigated. The study was performed both theoretically and experimentally using hyperpolarized xenon dissolved in ethanol. Analytical expressions regarding the optimal flip angle with respect to signal and the corresponding signal level are presented and comparisons with thermally polarized substances are made. Both experimentally and theoretically, the optimal flip angle was found to increase with increasing flow velocity. Numerical calculations showed that the velocity dependence of the signal differs between the cases of hyperpolarized and thermally polarized substances.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • Echo-Planar Imaging, Ethanol, Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Phantoms, Imaging, Xenon Isotopes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-75
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Nov
Publication categoryResearch