Guide and Position of the International Society of Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics on Personalized Nutrition: Part 2 - Ethics, Challenges and Endeavors of Precision Nutrition

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Nutrigenetics considers the influence of individual genetic variation on differences in response to dietary components, nutrient requirements and predisposition to disease. Nutrigenomics involves the study of interactions between the genome and diet, including how nutrients affect the transcription and translation process plus subsequent proteomic and metabolomic changes, and also differences in response to dietary factors based on the individual genetic makeup. Personalized characteristics such as age, gender, physical activity, physiological state and social status, and special conditions such as pregnancy and risk of disease can inform dietary advice that more closely meets individual needs. Precision nutrition has a promising future in treating the individual according to their phenotype and genetic characteristics, aimed at both the treatment and prevention of disease. However, many aspects are still in progress and remain as challenges for the future of nutrition. The integration of the human genotype and microbiome needs to be better understood. Further advances in data interpretation tools are also necessary, so that information obtained through newer tests and technologies can be properly transferred to consumers. Indeed, precision nutrition will integrate genetic data with phenotypical, social, cultural and personal preferences and lifestyles matters to provide a more individual nutrition, but considering public health perspectives, where ethical, legal and policy aspects need to be defined and implemented.


  • Martin Kohlmeier
  • Raffaele De Caterina
  • Lynnette R. Ferguson
  • Ulf Görman
  • Hooman Allayee
  • Chandan Prasad
  • Jing X. Kang
  • Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti
  • J. Alfredo Martinez
External organisations
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of Chieti-Pescara
  • University of Auckland
  • University of Southern California
  • Texas Woman's University
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Sao Paulo
  • Carlos III Health Institute
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • Functional foods, Genetic tests, Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, Nutriomics, Omics, Personalized nutrition, Public health
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-46
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1
Publication categoryResearch