High levels of immunoglobulin E and a continuous increase in immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M by age in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes

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The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, either because of environmental factors accelerating onset of the disease or because of inducement of autoimmune diabetes in children who previously were at lower risk. High levels of immunoglobulin (Ig), specifically, IgM and IgA, and a low level of IgG were reported in adult patients; however no studies have analyzed the increasing incidence in relation to Ig levels. Our aim was to describe Ig in children newly diagnosed with diabetes and in their healthy siblings. Children with T1D expressed significantly lower IgG (p < 0.01) and higher IgA levels (p = 0.045), whereas no differences in IgE or IgM (p > 0.5) levels were found. Age-specific levels were unchanged over a 9-year period. In patients and siblings IgG. IgA and IgE increased by age (p < 0.001); which was in contrast to IgM (p > 0.05). The continued increase in IgG levels by age indicates that adult levels are reached later than in previously studied cohorts, thereby indicating a slower maturation of the immune system. (C) 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Jannet Svensson
  • Stefanie Eising
  • Henrik Bindesbol Mortensen
  • Michael Christiansen
  • Inga Laursen
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Anita Ramelius
  • Lars Bjarke Simonsen
  • Bendix Carstensen
  • Flemming Pociot
  • Jesper Johannesen
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Immunology in the medical area


  • Type 1 diabetes, Immunoglobulin, Incidence, Hygiene
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
JournalHuman Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Publication categoryResearch