High-Density Lipoprotein–Associated Apolipoprotein M Limits Endothelial Inflammation by Delivering Sphingosine-1-Phosphate to the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
OBJECTIVE—: Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are potent antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory particles. However, HDL particles are highly heterogenic in composition, and different HDL-mediated functions can be ascribed to different subclasses of HDL. Only a small HDL population contains apolipoprotein M (ApoM), which is the main plasma carrier of the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Vascular inflammation is modulated by S1P, but both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles have been ascribed to S1P. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of ApoM and S1P in endothelial anti-inflammatory events related to HDL. APPROACH AND RESULTS—: Aortic or brain human primary endothelial cells were challenged with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as inflammatory stimuli. The presence of recombinant ApoM-bound S1P or ApoM-containing HDL reduced the abundance of adhesion molecules in the cell surface, whereas ApoM and ApoM-lacking HDL did not. Specifically, ApoM-bound S1P decreased vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin surface abundance but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Albumin, which is an alternative S1P carrier, was less efficient in inhibiting VCAM-1 than ApoM-bound S1P. The activation of the S1P receptor 1 was sufficient and required to promote anti-inflammation. Moreover, ApoM-bound S1P induced the rearrangement of the expression of S1P-related genes to counteract TNF-α. Functionally, HDL/ApoM/S1P limited monocyte adhesion to the endothelium and maintained endothelial barrier integrity under inflammatory conditions. CONCLUSIONS—: ApoM-bound S1P is a key component of HDL and is responsible for several HDL-associated protective functions in the endothelium, including regulation of adhesion molecule abundance, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and endothelial barrier.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology|
|Early online date||2016 Nov 22|
|Publication status||Published - 2017 Jan|