Higher smoking prevalence in urban compared to non-urban areas: Time trends in six, European countries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We investigated differences in smoking prevalence between urban and non-urban area of residence in six Western European countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Spain), and smoking prevalence trends over the period 1985-2000. In most countries, smoking prevalence was highest in urban areas, and increased with urbanization. Urban/non-urban inequalities were most pronounced among individuals with low education levels, and also among females. There were no significant differences in annual rate of change in smoking prevalence between non-urban and urban areas. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Berlian I. Idris
  • Katrina Giskes
  • Carme Borrell
  • Joan Benach
  • Guiseppe Costa
  • Bruno Federico
  • Satu Helakorpi
  • Uwe Helmert
  • Eero Lahelma
  • Kontle M. Moussa
  • Per-Olof Östergren
  • Ritva Prattala
  • Niels Kr. Rasmussen
  • Johan P. Mackenbach
  • Anton E. Kunst
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


  • urban/non-urban areas, smoking, inequalities, Europe
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)702-712
JournalHealth and Place
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch