HIPPIE: a new platform for ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the MAX IV Laboratory

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


HIPPIE is a soft X-ray beamline on the 3 GeV electron storage ring of the MAX IV Laboratory, equipped with a novel ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) instrument. The endstation is dedicated to performing in situ and operando X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments in the presence of a controlled gaseous atmosphere at pressures up to 30 mbar [1 mbar = 100 Pa] as well as under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. The photon energy range is 250 to 2200 eV in planar polarization and with photon fluxes >1012 photons s-1 (500 mA ring current) at a resolving power of greater than 10000 and up to a maximum of 32000. The endstation currently provides two sample environments: a catalysis cell and an electrochemical/liquid cell. The former allows APXPS measurements of solid samples in the presence of a gaseous atmosphere (with a mixture of up to eight gases and a vapour of a liquid) and simultaneous analysis of the inlet/outlet gas composition by online mass spectrometry. The latter is a more versatile setup primarily designed for APXPS at the solid-liquid (dip-and-pull setup) or liquid-gas (liquid microjet) interfaces under full electrochemical control, and it can also be used as an open port for ad hoc-designed non-standard APXPS experiments with different sample environments. The catalysis cell can be further equipped with an IR reflection-absorption spectrometer, allowing for simultaneous APXPS and IR spectroscopy of the samples. The endstation is set up to easily accommodate further sample environments.


  • Suyun Zhu
  • Rami Sankari
  • Robert Temperton
  • Louisa Pickworth
  • Filippo Cavalca
  • Chunlei Wang
  • Héloïse Tissot
  • Jonas Weissenrieder
  • Sarp Kaya
  • Fredrik Lindgren
  • Ida Källquist
  • Julia Maibach
  • Maria Hahlin
  • Giulio D'Acunto
External organisations
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology
  • Koc University
  • Uppsala University
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation


  • APXPS, beamline, catalysis, in situ, IR, operando, synchrotron
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)624-636
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Publication categoryResearch