IFN-alpha/beta signaling is required for polarization of cytokine responses toward a protective type 1 pattern during experimental cryptococcosis
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The antiviral activities of type I IFNs have long been established. However, comparatively little is known of their role in defenses against nonviral pathogens. We examined here the effects of type I IFNs on host resistance against the model pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. After intratracheal or i.v. challenge with this fungus, most mice lacking either the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/beta R) or IFN-beta died from unrestrained pneumonia and encephalitis, while all wild-type controls survived. The pulmonary immune response of IFN-beta/BR-/- mice was characterized by increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10, decreased expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, inducible NO synthetase, and CXCL10, and similar levels of IL-12 mRNA, compared with wild-type controls. Histopathological analysis showed eosinophilic infiltrates in the lungs of IFN-alpha/beta(-/-) mice, although this change was less extensive than that observed in similarly infected IFN-gamma R-deficient animals. Type I IFN responses could not be detected in the lung after intratracheal challenge. However, small, but statistically significant, elevations in IFN-beta levels were measured in the supernatants of bone marrow-derived macrophages or dendritic cells infected with C neoformans. Our data demonstrate that type I IFN signaling is required for polarization of cytokine responses toward a protective type I pattern during cryptococcal infection.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|