Imaging in gynecological disease (18): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of urinary bladder malignancies
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Objective: To describe the clinical and ultrasound characteristics of urinary bladder malignancies diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound in women presenting with suspected gynecological problems. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study of women with a histological diagnosis of urinary bladder malignancy that was suspected on transvaginal ultrasound examination. The cases were collected from three centers that specialize in the use of pelvic ultrasound and had been examined between January 2007 and October 2018. Clinical data were obtained from the computer databases and all tumor images were assessed by two of the authors (D.J. and J.K.) to identify characteristic sonographic patterns. We compared the characteristics of tumors between women presenting with symptoms suspicious of urinary bladder malignancy and those without such symptoms. Results: Thirty women with a confirmed diagnosis of urinary bladder malignancy on histological examination were included. Median age at diagnosis was 70.5 (range 36–88) years. The most common presenting symptom was postmenopausal bleeding, which was recorded in 18 (60%) women. Ten (33%) women had symptoms suspicious of bladder malignancy, of whom six had unexplained visible hematuria, three had unexplained recurrent urinary tract infections and one had dysuria and microhematuria. On histological examination, 23 (77%) women were diagnosed with primary bladder malignancy whilst seven (23%) had metastases in the bladder from other primary tumors. Out of 23 primary tumors, 21 (91%) were of urothelial origin (12 low grade and nine high grade). Most low-grade urothelial carcinomas appeared on ultrasound as irregular papillary growth (11/12, 92%) and were moderately to highly vascular on color Doppler examination (8/12, 67%). The ultrasound appearances of primary non-urothelial and metastatic tumors varied, without a clear common morphological tumor pattern. The tumors found in women with symptoms suggestive of bladder malignancy did not differ unequivocally from those detected in other women in terms of size, ultrasound morphology, vascularity or histological type. Conclusion: Urinary bladder malignancies can be detected in patients undergoing transvaginal ultrasound examination for suspected gynecological problems. Primary urothelial cancers have a relatively uniform morphological pattern, whilst the appearances of other bladder malignancies are more variable.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|