Immigrant enclaves and risk of drug involvement among asylum-seeking immigrants in Sweden: A quasi-experimental study

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title = "Immigrant enclaves and risk of drug involvement among asylum-seeking immigrants in Sweden: A quasi-experimental study",
abstract = "Background: Sweden is a major host nation for asylum-seeking immigrants, and residential placement of these immigrants is an important policy concern. This quasi-experimental study estimated of the impact of being placed into an “immigrant enclave” on risk of officially-recognized drug involvement (ORDI) among asylum-seeking immigrants over a 15-year period. Methods: All data come from Swedish registries. The sample consisted of (a) asylum-seeking immigrants aged 5–35 years old at arrival (N = 51,017) that were subject to a nationwide policy (enforced 1987–1991) that dispersed asylum-seeking immigrants across municipalities, and (b) native-born Swedes aged 15 and older during this same period (N = 1,040,311). Neighborhood immigrant composition was quantified using the Reardon Index; residents of “immigrant enclave” neighborhoods (n = 960) were compared to residents of all other neighborhoods (n = 2,471). Cox proportional hazards models assessed the relationship between living in an enclave and risk of ORDI, identified by national registries, through 2015. Results: Overall, 29.7% of immigrants were assigned to, and 25.5% of Swedes lived in, an enclave. Cumulative incidence of ORDI in enclaves was 6.34% as compared to 6.89% in other neighborhoods. Immigrants living in an enclave had lower risk of ORDI (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77 – 0.96). This protective association was marginally stronger in lower poverty areas. Native-born Swedes living in an enclave had higher risk of ORDI (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03–1.08), a relationship that was exacerbated by neighborhood poverty. Conclusions: Neighborhood immigrant composition is associated with risk of ORDI, with differential associations for immigrants and native-born populations.",
keywords = "Immigration, Neighborhood, Segregation, Substance abuse",
author = "Briana Mezuk and Henrik Ohlsson and Klas Cederin and Jan Sundquist and Kendler, {Kenneth S.} and Kristina Sundquist",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107666",
language = "English",
volume = "205",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "1879-0046",
publisher = "Elsevier",