Impact of gender on echocardiographic characteristics in heart transplant recipients

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Aims: Assessment following heart transplantation (HTx) is routinely performed using transthoracic echocardiography. Differences in long-term mortality following HTx related to donor-recipient matching have been reported, but effects of gender on cardiac size and function are not well studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in echocardiographic characteristics of HTx recipients defined by gender. Methods and results: The study prospectively enrolled 123 (n = 34 female) HTx recipients of which 23 recipients was donor-recipient gender mismatched. Patients were examined with 2-dimensional echocardiography using Philips iE33 ultrasound system. Data were analysed across strata based on recipient gender and gender mismatch. Male recipients had larger left ventricular (LV) mass, thicker septal wall (P<0·001) and larger absolute LV volumes (P<0·001). Mean LV ejection fraction (EF) was higher in females (P<0·05), but no differences in conventional parameters of right ventricular (RV) function were found. Ventricular strain was higher in females than in males: LV global longitudinal strain (P<0·01), RV global longitudinal strain (P<0·05) and RV lateral free wall (P<0·05). The male group receiving a female donor heart had comparable EF and strain parameters to the female group receiving a gender-matched heart. Conclusion: We found that female recipient gender was associated with smaller chamber size, higher LV EF and better LV and RV longitudinal strain. Gender-mismatched male recipients appeared to exhibit function parameters similar to gender-matched female recipients. Our results indicate that the gender aspect, analogous to current reference guidelines in general population, should be taken into consideration when examining patients post-HTx.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems


  • 2-dimensional echocardiography, allograft, gender mismatch, heart transplantation, speckle tracking, strain
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-254
JournalClinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Issue number4
Early online date2019
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch