Improvements in absorbed dose measurements for external radiation therapy using ferrous dosimeter gel and MR imaging (FeMRI)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A ferrous gel, based on ferrous (Fe) sulphate and agarose, was used with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to obtain relative dose distribution data from therapeutic photon and electron beams. The FeMRI gel was scanned using a new MRI acquisition protocol optimized for T1 measurements. Thorough comparisons with silicon semiconductor detector and ionization chamber measurements, as well as with Monte Carlo calculations, were performed in order to quantify the improvements obtained using FeMRI for dose estimations. Most of the relative doses measured with FeMRI were within 2% of the doses measured with other methods. The larger discrepancies (2-4%) found at shallow depths are discussed. The uncertainty in relative dose measurements using FeMRI was significantly improved compared with previously reported results (5-10%, one standard deviation, 1 SD), and is today between 1.6% and 3.3% (depending on dose level, 2 SD). This corresponds to an improvement in the minimum detectable dose (3 SD above background) from approximately 2 Gy to better than 0.6 Gy. The results obtained in this study emphasize the importance of obtaining basic FeMRI dose data before the method is extended to complicated treatment regimes.


External organisations
  • St Luke's Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • Electrons, Ferrous Compounds, Gels, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Phantoms, Imaging, Photons, Radiotherapy Dosage, Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted, Radiotherapy, High-Energy, Reproducibility of Results, Sepharose
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-76
Number of pages16
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1998 Feb
Publication categoryResearch