Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate islet function after carbohydrate ingestion. Whether incretin hormones are of importance for islet function after ingestion of noncarbohydrate macronutrients is not known. This study therefore examined integrated incretin and islet hormone responses to ingestion of pure fat (oleic acid; 0.88 g/kg) or protein (milk and egg protein; 2 g/kg) over 5 h in healthy men, aged 20-25 yr (n = 12); plain water ingestion served as control. Both intact (active) and total GLP-1 and GIP levels were determined as was plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). Following water ingestion, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels and DPP-4 activity were stable during the 5-h study period. Both fat and protein ingestion increased insulin, glucagon, GIP, and GLP-1 levels without affecting glucose levels or DPP-4 activity. The GLP-1 responses were similar after protein and fat, whereas the early (30 min) GIP response was higher after protein than after fat ingestion (P < 0.001). This was associated with sevenfold higher insulin and glucagon responses compared with fat ingestion (both P < 0.001). After protein, the early GIP, but not GLP-1, responses correlated to insulin (r(2) = 0.86; P = 0.0001) but not glucagon responses. In contrast, after fat ingestion, GLP-1 and GIP did not correlate to islet hormones. We conclude that, whereas protein and fat release both incretin and islet hormones, the early GIP secretion after protein ingestion may be of primary importance to islet hormone secretion.


  • Richard D. Carr
  • Marianne O. Larsen
  • Maria Sörhede Winzell
  • Katarina Jelic
  • Ola Lindgren
  • Carolyn F. Deacon
  • Bo Ahrén
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Physiology


  • incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1, man, glucose-dependent, insulinotropic polypeptide, insulin, glucagon
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E779-E784
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Publication categoryResearch

Related research output

Ola Lindgren, 2012, Clinical Sciences, Lund University. 88 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

View all (1)