Independent validation of metric optimized gating for fetal cardiovascular phase-contrast flow imaging

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


PURPOSE: To validate metric optimized gating phase-contrast MR (MOG PC-MR) flow measurements for a range of fetal flow velocities in phantom experiments. 2) To investigate intra- and interobserver variability for fetal flow measurements at an imaging center other than the original site.

METHODS: MOG PC-MR was compared to timer/beaker measurements in a pulsatile flow phantom using a heart rate (∼145 bpm), nozzle diameter (∼6 mm), and flow range (∼130-700 mL/min) similar to fetal imaging. Fifteen healthy fetuses were included for intra- and interobserver variability in the fetal descending aorta and umbilical vein.

RESULTS: Phantom MOG PC-MR flow bias and variability was 2% ± 23%. Accuracy of MOG PC-MR was degraded for flow profiles with low velocity-to-noise ratio. Intra- and interobserver coefficients of variation were 6% and 19%, respectively, for fetal descending aorta; and 10% and 17%, respectively, for the umbilical vein.

CONCLUSION: Phantom validation showed good agreement between MOG and conventionally gated PC-MR, except for cases with low velocity-to-noise ratio, which resulted in MOG misgating and underestimated peak velocities and warranted optimization of sequence parameters to individual fetal vessels. Inter- and intraobserver variability for fetal MOG PC-MR imaging were comparable to previously reported values.


External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
  • Medical Image Processing
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)495-503
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date2018 Aug 29
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch