Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled - A multi-methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective. Previous research has shown that elderly and disabled travelers using Special Transportation Services (STS) are injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate the true costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards an incident/traveler-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was thus to utilize such a perspective, in order to make a best estimation of the true costs for injury incidents, related to STS in Sweden. Methods. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed-method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research methods applied on four different sets of data, the hospital-based material (n = 32), two sets of STS material (n = 127), and interview-based material (n = 1,000). Results. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e., 3.2 per 100,000 trips (ranging from 1.5-1.9 in STS taxis and 3.6-5.6 in STS special vehicles). However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic crashes, but to non-collision injury incidents involving elderly and frail passengers, easily sustaining injuries from minor to moderate external violence. Typically, this violence is affecting an older female STS user, while entering and exiting the vehicle. The true costs were estimated to be $35 million per annum or $2.6 per trip. Conclusion. Future injury prevention measures should thus focus on safety in entering and exiting procedures.


External organisations
  • Norrland University Hospital
  • Linköping University
  • Swedish Road Administration
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Transport Systems and Logistics


  • Cost estimations, Injury incidence, Special transportation services for elderly and disabled, STS special vehicles, STS taxis, Travel chain perspective
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-188
Number of pages9
JournalTraffic Injury Prevention
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jun
Publication categoryResearch