Însușirea limbii române de către studenții străini, nivel A1. Studiu comparativ studenți norvegieni vs indieni

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapter


The flexion of the verb in the Norwegian language for the indicative mood present tense has only one morphologic form, no matter the person and the number. The Punjabi language (spoken by more than 90 million people) is an Indo-Arian language (an immense subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, having more than 900 million speakers). The Punjabi language is closely related to Romany (Gipsy) language, as well as to Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Bengali, Marathi, Guajarati, Oriya, Sindhi, Saraiki, Nepali, Sinhala and Assamese. From a typological aspect, the Punjabi language has a complex morphological system, including the conjugation of the verb. Concerning the Romanian language, the foreign student has to assimilate, form the very beginning, the existence of four groups of conjugation (according to the traditional classification, regularly used in the education system), classified according to the infinitive (to which one has to add the irregular verbs) and also the endings according to person and number, specific to each group. Moreover, there are some mutations in the root word of the verb from time to time, much more difficult to catch by a foreign speaker. Learning and proper using of tens of verbal endings in the Romanian language can be an insurmountable standstill at least for some of the foreign students. In English the demonstrative pronoun/adjective changes solely according to number, not by the gender as well. In Norwegian the demonstrative pronoun/adjective changes both according to number and gender (neuter gender as well!). In Punjabi, the demonstrative pronoun exists and is used replacing the personal pronoun in the third person. There is also a difference between proximal and distal demonstrative pronouns, with changes according to number, yet not by the gender. Hence for the Norwegian student learning the proximal demonstrative pronoun is not an absolute novelty; typologically there is an analogy to the Norwegian linguistic system. For the Indian student speaking Punjabi and English the existence of this pronoun and its changing according to number is again a familiar pattern. However learning the additional changes by the gender is an absolute and sometimes insurmountable novelty. Many of the errors in the way the definite article and the proximal demonstrative pronoun are used are caused, actually, by a difficulty of the Norwegian or Indian student to identify the gender of the noun, the adjective or the demonstrative pronoun. I do not make mention either of the everlasting issue of the discrepancy between the natural and the grammatical gender, or of the distinctiveness of each linguistic system in the way it decides its gender. I do make mention however of the ambiguous statute of the neuter gender (ambi-gender) of the Romanian language. The Norwegian language has a properly neuter gender that can be identified by its content and more important by its formal aspect, it has specific terminations, diverse from the masculine and feminine endings. The Punjabi language does not have at all the neuter gender as part of its morphological system. The examples I mention in the present analysis are relevant for the conclusion that the learning of the Romanian language by foreign students, beginners level, is a complex educational process with inherent novel outcomes that are difficult to prefigure. Although one starts from seeming identical circumstances and the same educational practices are implemented, random aspect interfere, such as the mother tongue of the foreign student. It can play an essential role. It is a linguistic frame that unintentionally carries out a modelling pressure on the new language that has to be acquired. Most of the times the morphological structure of the mother tongue of the foreign student is not identical with the Romanian morphological structure; thus what the foreign student subconsciously perceives as a setup reference frame is instead an impediment or possibly even a barrier. Some errors similar to both series of foreign students could be identified, this being a substantiation that the Romanian language has immutable difficulties that are demanding for any foreign student, i.e. the conjugation of the verb in the indicative present or the neuter gender. Regardless of any linguistic or educational assertions the main actor in the process of acquiring the Romanian language is evermore another, the foreign student himself; an individuality with its own impulse and ability.


External organisations
  • 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Specific Languages


  • conjugation, definite article, demonstrative pronoun, foreign student, neuter gender, Norwegian language, Punjabi language, Romanian language, written exam.
Translated title of the contributionThe Assimilation of the Romanian Language by Foreign Students, Level A1.: A Comparative Investigation: Norwegian vs. Indian Students
Original languageRomanian
Title of host publicationEuropean Integration / National Identity; Plurilingualism/ Multiculturality – Romanian Language and Culture: Evaluation, Perspectives), Proceedings, Iasi, 25-26 September 2013
EditorsLuminiţa Botoşineanu, Ofelia Ichim
PublisherAracne Editrice
ISBN (Print)978-88-548-7812-9
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch

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Related research output

Lucian Bagiu, 2016 Mar 22, Iași: Tipo Moldova. 491 p. (Opera omnia. Publicistică și eseu contemporan)

Research output: Book/ReportBook

Lucian Bagiu, 2016, Despre Sebastian, Sorescu, Dosoftei, Derrida și limba română. Iaşi: Tipo Moldova, p. 377-395 22 p. (Colecția OPERA OMNIA publicistică și eseu contemporan).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapter

Lucian Bagiu, 2010, In: Philologica Jassyensia. 6, 1, p. 255-276

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Related projects

Lucian Vasile Bagiu, Roxana Magdalena Barlea, Ioana Carmen Jieanu, Valeriu Stancu, Florin Oprescu, Florin Cioban, Stefan Gencarau, Constantin-Ioan Mladin, Nicolae Stanciu, Jarmila Horakova & Andra Bruciu-Cozlean


Project: ResearchInternational collaboration

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Related activities

Bagiu, L. V. (Participant)
2013 Sep 25

Activity: Participating in or organising an eventParticipation in conference

Bagiu, L. V. (Interviewee)
2009 Apr 23

Activity: OtherMedia participation

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