Intralymphatic Immunotherapy: Update and Unmet Needs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only allergy treatment that confers long-term symptom amelioration for patients suffering from allergy. The most frequently used allergen application route is subcutaneous injection (SCIT), commonly taken as the gold standard, followed by sublingual (SLIT) or oral (OIT) application of allergen preparations. This is an up-to-date review of the clinical evidence for a novel route of allergen application, i.e., directly into lymph nodes - intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT). The major advantages of ILIT over the current AIT approaches are its short duration and the low allergen doses administered. The whole treatment consists of merely 3 ultrasound-guided injections into inguinal lymph nodes 1 month apart. While the number of patients included in randomised controlled trials is still limited, the clinical results for ILIT are encouraging, but more clinical trials are needed, as well as more preclinical work for optimising formulations.


  • Gabriela Senti
  • Andreas U. Freiburghaus
  • Désirée Larenas-Linnemann
  • Hans Jürgen Hoffmann
  • Amber M. Patterson
  • Ludger Klimek
  • Danilo Di Bona
  • Oliver Pfaar
  • Lars Ahlbeck
  • Mübeccel Akdis
  • Dan Weinfeld
  • Francisco A. Contreras-Verduzco
  • Alvaro Pedroza-Melendez
  • Søren H. Skaarup
  • Sang Min Lee
  • Lars Olaf Cardell
  • Johannes M. Schmid
  • Ulla Westin
  • Ralph Dollner
  • Thomas M. Kündig
External organisations
  • University Hospital of Zurich
  • Aarhus University
  • Aarhus University Hospital
  • University of Bari Aldo Moro
  • Heidelberg University
  • Linköping University
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • Hospital Médica Sur
  • ENT & Allergy Specialists of Northwest Ohio
  • Center for Rhinology and Allergology
  • University Medical Centre Mannheim
  • Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF)
  • South Elfsborg Hospital
  • National Institute Of Pediatrics, Mexico
  • Gachon University
  • Oslo university hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy


  • Allergen-specific immunotherapy, Allergy, Clinical trials, Intralymphatic immunotherapy
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2018 Nov 2
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes