Introductory Study of Variable Valve Actuation for Pneumatic Hybridization

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPaper in conference proceeding


Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional IC engines could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. One solution to this is a pneumatic hybrid using variable valve timing to compress air during deceleration and expand air during acceleration. The compressed air can also be utilized to supercharge the engine in order to get higher load in the first few cycles when accelerating. A Scania D12 single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted for pneumatic hybrid operation and tested in a laboratory setup. Pneumatic valve actuators have been used to make the pneumatic hybrid possible. The actuators have been mounted on top of the cylinder head of the engine. A pressure tank has been connected to one of the inlet ports and one of the inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve. The goal has been to test and evaluate 2 different modes – compression mode (CM) where air is stored in an air tank during deceleration and air-motor mode (AM) where the previously stored pressurized air is used for accelerating the vehicle. This paper also includes an optimization of the CM.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Mechanical Engineering


  • variable valve timing, pneumatic, hybrid
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAE technical paper series
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

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