Kidney function and its association to imminent, short- and long-term fracture risk—a longitudinal study in older women
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Summary: Reduced kidney function is associated with an increased fracture risk, although the relationship between an age-related decline and fractures needs further investigation. We followed kidney function and fracture risk for 10 years. A mild-moderate decline in kidney function was associated with fracture, but not in advanced age. Introduction: With age, kidney function declines. Though well known that chronic kidney disease is associated with increased fracture risk, the extent to which the typical age-related decline contributes is unclear. In the OPRA cohort, a longitudinal study of older non-selected women, we investigated the association between kidney function and fracture. Methods: Cystatin C–based kidney function estimates were available at age 75 (n = 981) and 80 (n = 685). Women were categorized by kidney function: normal (CKD stages 1 and 2), mild-moderate (3a), poor (3b-5), and imminent, short- and long-term fracture risk investigated. BMD measurements and kidney function for risk prediction were also evaluated; women were categorized by both reduced kidney function (stages 3–5) and osteoporosis status. Results: In the short term, 2–3 years, mild-moderate kidney dysfunction was associated with the highest risk increase: osteoporotic fractures (2 years HRadj 2.21, 95% CI 1.27–3.87) and also up to 5 years (between 75 and 80 years) (HRadj 1.51, 1.04–2.18). Hip fracture risk was similarly increased. This association was not observed from age 80 nor for women with poorest kidney function. Reduced kidney function was associated with higher risk even without osteoporosis (osteoporotic fracture; HRadj 1.66, 1.08–2.54); risk increased by having both osteoporosis and reduced function (HRadj 2.53, 1.52–4.23). Conclusion: Older women with mild-moderate reduction of kidney function are at increased risk of fractures, but not those with the worst function. Our findings furthermore confirm the value of osteoporosis assessment and it is possible that in this age group, age-related decline of kidney function has limited contribution compared with BMD.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Early online date||2019 Nov 21|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|