Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer.

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Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer. / Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislén, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman.

In: Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences, Vol. 281, No. 1795, 20141177, 2014.

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Immonen, Esa-Ville ; Ignatova, Irina ; Gislén, Anna ; Warrant, Eric ; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko ; Weckström, Matti ; Frolov, Roman. / Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer. In: Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences. 2014 ; Vol. 281, No. 1795.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer.

AU - Immonen, Esa-Ville

AU - Ignatova, Irina

AU - Gislén, Anna

AU - Warrant, Eric

AU - Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko

AU - Weckström, Matti

AU - Frolov, Roman

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool.

AB - The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool.

U2 - 10.1098/rspb.2014.1177

DO - 10.1098/rspb.2014.1177

M3 - Article

C2 - 25274359

VL - 281

JO - Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences

JF - Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences

SN - 1471-2954

IS - 1795

M1 - 20141177

ER -