Life-Space Mobility in Parkinson’s Disease: Associations with Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: To describe life-space mobility and explore associations of motor and non-motor symptoms with life-space mobility in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods: About 164 community-dwelling persons with PD (mean age 71.6 years, 64.6% men) received a postal survey and a subsequent home visit. Motor assessments included perceived walking difficulties (Walk-12G), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), motor symptoms (UPDRS-III), and freezing of gait (item 3, FOG-Qsa). Non-motor symptoms included depressive symptoms (GDS-15), pain, fatigue (NHP-EN), and global cognition (MoCA). Life-space mobility was assessed with the life-space assessment (LSA). Calculations included composite score (range 0–120; higher indicating better life-space mobility), independent life-space (range 0–5), assisted life-space (range 0–5), and maximal life-space (range
0–5). Associations were analyzed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and PD severity (Hoehn and Yahr).
Results: Mean life-space mobility score was 72.3 (SD = 28.8). Almost all participants (90%) reached the highest life-space level (beyond town). Half of these reached this level independently, while one-third were unable to move outside their bedroom without assistive devices or personal help. When adjusted for confounders, depressive symptoms, pain, and perceived walking difficulties was negatively associated with life-space mobility. In the multivariable model, only perceived walking difficulties were associated with life-space mobility.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that perceived walking difficulties should be targeted to maintain or improve life-space mobility in people with PD. Depressive symptoms and pain may also merit consideration. More research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental and personal factors for life-space mobility in PD.


External organisations
  • University of Jyväskylä
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology
  • Occupational Therapy
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507–512
Number of pages6
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Issue number4
Early online date2018 Apr 10
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch