Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Standard

Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact. / Reitalu, Triin; Seppa, Heikki; Sugita, Shinya; Kangur, Mihkel; Koff, Tiiu; Avel, Eve; Kihno, Kersti; Vassiljev, Jueri; Renssen, Hans; Hammarlund, Dan; Heikkila, Maija; Saarse, Leili; Poska, Anneli; Veski, Siim.

In: Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2013, p. 1524-1534.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Reitalu, T, Seppa, H, Sugita, S, Kangur, M, Koff, T, Avel, E, Kihno, K, Vassiljev, J, Renssen, H, Hammarlund, D, Heikkila, M, Saarse, L, Poska, A & Veski, S 2013, 'Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact', Journal of Biogeography, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1524-1534. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12092

APA

CBE

Reitalu T, Seppa H, Sugita S, Kangur M, Koff T, Avel E, Kihno K, Vassiljev J, Renssen H, Hammarlund D, Heikkila M, Saarse L, Poska A, Veski S. 2013. Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact. Journal of Biogeography. 40(8):1524-1534. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12092

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Reitalu, Triin ; Seppa, Heikki ; Sugita, Shinya ; Kangur, Mihkel ; Koff, Tiiu ; Avel, Eve ; Kihno, Kersti ; Vassiljev, Jueri ; Renssen, Hans ; Hammarlund, Dan ; Heikkila, Maija ; Saarse, Leili ; Poska, Anneli ; Veski, Siim. / Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact. In: Journal of Biogeography. 2013 ; Vol. 40, No. 8. pp. 1524-1534.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term drivers of forest composition in a boreonemoral region: the relative importance of climate and human impact

AU - Reitalu, Triin

AU - Seppa, Heikki

AU - Sugita, Shinya

AU - Kangur, Mihkel

AU - Koff, Tiiu

AU - Avel, Eve

AU - Kihno, Kersti

AU - Vassiljev, Jueri

AU - Renssen, Hans

AU - Hammarlund, Dan

AU - Heikkila, Maija

AU - Saarse, Leili

AU - Poska, Anneli

AU - Veski, Siim

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Aim To assess statistically the relative importance of climate and human impact on forest composition in the late Holocene. Location Estonia, boreonemoral Europe. Methods Data on forest composition (10 most abundant tree and shrub taxa) for the late Holocene (5100-50 calibrated years before 1950) were derived from 18 pollen records and then transformed into land-cover estimates using the REVEALS vegetation reconstruction model. Human impact was quantified with palaeoecological estimates of openness, frequencies of hemerophilous pollen types (taxa growing in habitats influenced by human activities) and microscopic charcoal particles. Climate data generated with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model provided summer and winter temperature data. The modelled data were supported by sedimentary stable oxygen isotope (O-18) records. Redundancy analysis (RDA), variation partitioning and linear mixed effects (LME) models were applied for statistical analyses. Results Both climate and human impact were statistically significant predictors of forest compositional change during the late Holocene. While climate exerted a dominant influence on forest composition in the beginning of the study period, human impact was the strongest driver of forest composition change in the middle of the study period, c.4000-2000years ago, when permanent agriculture became established and expanded. The late Holocene cooling negatively affected populations of nemoral deciduous taxa (Tilia, Corylus, Ulmus, Quercus, Alnus and Fraxinus), allowing boreal taxa (Betula, Salix, Picea and Pinus) to succeed. Whereas human impact has favoured populations of early-successional taxa that colonize abandoned agricultural fields (Betula, Salix, Alnus) or that can grow on less fertile soils (Pinus), it has limited taxa such as Picea that tend to grow on more mesic and fertile soils. Main conclusions Combining palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological data from multiple sources facilitates quantitative characterization of factors driving forest composition dynamics on millennial time-scales. Our results suggest that in addition to the climatic influence on forest composition, the relative abundance of individual forest taxa has been significantly influenced by human impact over the last four millennia.

AB - Aim To assess statistically the relative importance of climate and human impact on forest composition in the late Holocene. Location Estonia, boreonemoral Europe. Methods Data on forest composition (10 most abundant tree and shrub taxa) for the late Holocene (5100-50 calibrated years before 1950) were derived from 18 pollen records and then transformed into land-cover estimates using the REVEALS vegetation reconstruction model. Human impact was quantified with palaeoecological estimates of openness, frequencies of hemerophilous pollen types (taxa growing in habitats influenced by human activities) and microscopic charcoal particles. Climate data generated with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model provided summer and winter temperature data. The modelled data were supported by sedimentary stable oxygen isotope (O-18) records. Redundancy analysis (RDA), variation partitioning and linear mixed effects (LME) models were applied for statistical analyses. Results Both climate and human impact were statistically significant predictors of forest compositional change during the late Holocene. While climate exerted a dominant influence on forest composition in the beginning of the study period, human impact was the strongest driver of forest composition change in the middle of the study period, c.4000-2000years ago, when permanent agriculture became established and expanded. The late Holocene cooling negatively affected populations of nemoral deciduous taxa (Tilia, Corylus, Ulmus, Quercus, Alnus and Fraxinus), allowing boreal taxa (Betula, Salix, Picea and Pinus) to succeed. Whereas human impact has favoured populations of early-successional taxa that colonize abandoned agricultural fields (Betula, Salix, Alnus) or that can grow on less fertile soils (Pinus), it has limited taxa such as Picea that tend to grow on more mesic and fertile soils. Main conclusions Combining palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological data from multiple sources facilitates quantitative characterization of factors driving forest composition dynamics on millennial time-scales. Our results suggest that in addition to the climatic influence on forest composition, the relative abundance of individual forest taxa has been significantly influenced by human impact over the last four millennia.

KW - Anthropogenic impact

KW - community history

KW - Estonia

KW - forest composition

KW - forest ecology

KW - meta-analysis

KW - millennial time-scale

KW - palaeoecology

KW - pollen data

KW - variation partitioning

U2 - 10.1111/jbi.12092

DO - 10.1111/jbi.12092

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 1524

EP - 1534

JO - Journal of Biogeography

JF - Journal of Biogeography

SN - 1365-2699

IS - 8

ER -