Long-term follow-up after risk-adapted treatment in clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT) implementing adjuvant CVB chemotherapy. A SWENOTECA study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: To offer minimized risk-adapted adjuvant treatment on a community and nationwide basis for patients with clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT). The aim was to reduce the risk of relapse and thereby reducing the need of later salvage chemotherapy while maintaining a high cure rate. Patients and methods: From July 1995 to January 1998, a total of 232 Swedish and Norwegian patients were treated for CS1 NSGCT. All were eligible for inclusion into one of two community-based multicenter Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Project (SWENOTECA) III studies. One study was a prospective randomized study for patients without vascular invasion in the testicular tumor (VASC-), evaluating the effect of one adjuvant course of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin (CVB) compared with surveillance. The second study was a prospective study evaluating the effect of two adjuvant courses of CVB for VASC+ patients. Results: Due to slow accrual and emerging data on toxicity of CVB, the studies were prematurely closed for inclusion in 1998. Of the 232 CS1 patients treated during the study period, only 97 were included in the studies. As all remaining patients were managed according to the SWENOTECA III protocol, although not randomized, the data were pooled. At a median follow-up of 10.1 years, there have been 24 relapses. While one course of CVB to VASC- patients had limited effect on the relapse rate, two courses of adjuvant CVB reduced the relapse rate among VASC+ patients by > 90%. Toxicity was high in patients administered adjuvant CVB as 24% of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 obstipation/ileus and 23% grade 3 or 4 infection. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in relapse rate between one course of adjuvant CVB and surveillance for VASC- NSGCT patients. Two courses of adjuvant CVB for VASC+ NSGCT patients reduced the relapse rate with > 90% in comparison to the surveillance group. Toxicity was unacceptably high for all patients receiving CVB. Adjuvant CVB chemotherapy has no place in the treatment of CS1 NSGCT.


  • T. Tandstad
  • G. Cohn-Cedermark
  • O. Dahl
  • U. Stierner
  • Eva Cavallin-Ståhl
  • R. M. Bremnes
  • O. Klepp
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology


  • testicular cancer, risk-adapted treatment, long-term follow-up, adjuvant chemotherapy, clinical stage 1
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1858-1863
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Publication categoryResearch