Magnesium, potassium and zinc deficiency in patients with type II diabetes mellitus
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The concentrations of magnesium, potassium and zinc were determined in plasma, erythrocytes, muscle biopsies, and in urine collected during 24 hours, in 18 subjects with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). Magnesium was also determined in mononuclear cells. The results were compared with those in 35 (magnesium and potassium analyses) or 26 (zinc analyses) healthy controls. Subjects with type II DM had lower concentrations of magnesium (3.79 +/- 0.32 vs. 4.29 +/- 0.22 mmol/100 g FFDS), potassium (40.5 +/- 5.17 vs. 46.1 +/- 3.81 mmol/100 g FFDS) and zinc (231 +/- 29 vs. 247 +/- 23 ng/mg FFDS) in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the urinary excretions of magnesium and zinc were higher, as compared with those in healthy controls (5.00 +/- 2.68 vs. 3.62 +/- 1.47 mmol/24 hours, and 683 +/- 285 vs. 326 +/- 205 micrograms/24 hours, respectively). The contents of magnesium, potassium and zinc plasma did not correlate with the corresponding concentrations in skeletal muscle or circulating blood cells, as investigated in healthy controls, diabetics and in all subjects together, implying that the plasma concentrations are not useful in the assessment of electrolyte status. Hence, deficiency of electrolytes frequently occurs, and should be looked for, in subjects with type II DM.