Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults. Methods: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders. Results: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (−22 g/year; 95 % CI −33 to −10) and women (−18 g/year; 95 % CI −26 to −11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant. Conclusions: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.


  • Heinz Freisling
  • Pedro T. Pisa
  • Pietro Ferrari
  • Graham Byrnes
  • Aurelie Moskal
  • Christina C. Dahm
  • Anne Claire Vergnaud
  • Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault
  • Guy Fagherazzi
  • Claire Cadeau
  • Tilman Kühn
  • Jasmine Neamat-Allah
  • Brian Buijsse
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Jytte Halkjær
  • Anne Tjonneland
  • Camilla P. Hansen
  • J. Ramón Quirós
  • Noémie Travier
  • Esther Molina-Montes
  • Pilar Amiano
  • José M. Huerta
  • Aurelio Barricarte
  • Kay Tee Khaw
  • Nicholas Wareham
  • Tim J. Key
  • Dora Romaguera
  • Yunxia Lu
  • Camille M. Lassale
  • Androniki Naska
  • Philippos Orfanos
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Giovanna Masala
  • Valeria Pala
  • Franco Berrino
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Fulvio Ricceri
  • Maria Santucci de Magistris
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Marga C. Ocké
  • Mattias Johansson
  • Guri Skeie
  • Elisabete Weiderpass
  • Tonje Braaten
  • Petra H M Peeters
  • Nadia Slimani
External organisations
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization
  • University of the Witwatersrand
  • Aarhus University
  • Imperial College London
  • Institut Gustave Roussy
  • German Cancer Research Centre
  • German Institute of Human Nutrition
  • Institute of Cancer Epidemiology - Denmark
  • Public Health Directorate
  • Catalan Institute of Oncology
  • CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP)
  • Murcia Regional Health Council
  • Health Research Institute of Navarra (IDISNA)
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Oxford
  • CIBER de Fisiopatología Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN)
  • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
  • Cancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO)
  • Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
  • Civic and M.P Arezzo Hospital
  • Citta' della Salute e della Scienza Hospital-University of Turin
  • University of Naples Federico II
  • University of Malaya
  • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
  • Umeå University
  • UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø
  • Folkhälsan Research Center
  • University Medical Center Utrecht
  • Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP)
  • University of Paris-Sud
  • Biodonostia Health Research Institute
  • Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens
  • Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research
  • Karolinska Institutet
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Nutrition and Dietetics


  • Dietary patterns, Energy balance, Nutrients, Obesity, Public health, Weight gain
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2093-2104
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sep 1
Publication categoryResearch