Massive feto-maternal hemorrhage: diagnosis by cardiotocography, Doppler ultrasonography and ST waveform analysis of fetal electrocardiography.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A 34-year-old healthy gravida 2 para 1 presented after an uncomplicated pregnancy at term with a 2-day history of diminished fetal movements. Fetal anemia was suspected by fetal heart rate monitoring and Doppler estimation of the fetal peak blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery. We were also fortunate to register pathological ST waveform changes of the fetal ECG indicating fetal hypoxia. The diagnosis of a massive feto-maternal hemorrhage was confirmed by an extremely high fraction of erythrocytes containing fetal hemoglobin in maternal blood and, after delivery, by placental histology. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Pediatrics
  • Cancer and Oncology
  • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine


  • fetal anemia, decreased fetal movements, feto-maternal hemorrhage, fetal ECG-ST, waveform changes, middle cerebral artery flow velocity, sinusoidal CTG pattern, placenta pathology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-12
JournalFetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Lund) (013018000), Pathology, (Lund) (013030000), Paediatrics (Lund) (013002000)