Maternal dietary supplement use and development of islet autoimmunity in the offspring: TEDDY study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) supplements during pregnancy and risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) in the offspring. Methods: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study is prospectively following 8676 children with increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Blood samples were collected every 3 months between 3 and 48 months of age then every 6 months thereafter to determine persistent IA. Duration, frequency, and supplement dose during pregnancy were recalled by mothers at 3 to 4 months postpartum. Cumulative intakes of supplemental vitamin D and n-3 FAs were analyzed as continuous or binary variables. We applied time-to-event analysis to study the association between maternal supplement use and IA, adjusting for country, human leukocyte antigen-DR-DQ genotype, family history of type 1 diabetes and sex. Secondary outcomes included insulin autoantibodies (IAA) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) as the first appearing autoantibody. Results: As of February 2018, there were 747 (9.0%) children with IA. Vitamin D supplement intake during pregnancy (any vs none) was not associated with risk for IA (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.31); neither was cumulative vitamin D supplement intake. Supplemental n-3 FA intake was similarly not associated with IA risk (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 0.98, 1.45). Similar lack of association was observed for either IAA or GADA as the first appearing autoantibody. Conclusions: The TEDDY cohort showed no evidence of benefit regarding IA risk for vitamin D or n-3 FA supplementation during pregnancy.


  • TEDDY Study Group
  • Katherine Silvis
  • Carin A. Aronsson
  • Xiang Liu
  • Ulla Uusitalo
  • Jimin Yang
  • Roy Tamura
  • Åke Lernmark
  • Marian Rewers
  • William Hagopian
  • Jin Xiong She
  • Olli Simell
  • Jorma Toppari
  • Anette Ziegler
  • Beena Akolkar
  • Jeffrey Krischer
  • Suvi M. Virtanen
  • Jill M. Norris
External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • University of Colorado School of Medicine
  • Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute
  • Turku University Hospital
  • University of Turku
  • Helmholtz Zentrum München
  • Klinikum rechts der Isar
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
  • Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare
  • University of Tampere
  • Pirkanmaa Hospital District
  • University of Colorado
  • University of South Florida
  • Augusta University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • dietary supplements, islet autoimmunity, omega-3 fatty acids, pregnancy, vitamin D
Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Diabetes
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2018 Nov 8
Publication categoryResearch