Measurements of occupancy levels in multi-family dwellings-Application to demand controlled ventilation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The occupancy level of dwellings is an important parameter to know to determine the energy efficiency, energy use and indoor air quality, especially in low-energy buildings where the user-related energy uses, such as household electricity and domestic hot water heating, are significant parts of the energy balance in a building. For residential buildings, there is a lack of occupancy level data, which also needs to be resolved over time, in a way so that both short term and long term variations can be described. As a part of an ongoing study, occupancy levels were measured as building average levels in 18 apartment buildings containing 342 apartments in total with readings every 30 min for more than a year. Averages and standard deviations of occupancy level, and variation in occupancy during the year, week and day respectively are presented. The results show a highly varying occupancy level over time, which indicates the potential of demand controlled ventilation in dwellings. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Building Technologies


  • Occupancy level, Demand controlled ventilation, Dwellings, Residential
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2449-2455
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch